The tracer model employs simple decaying rates for most primary species, plus wet scavanging and dry depostions et al. We can roughly derive the AVERAGE aging time for certain species based on their decaying rates if rain and cloud are not heavy, or have few impacts on those species. The presented ages can be used ONLY as a reference, due to realistic complexity. Please note that the tracer concentrations DO NOT represent the realistic concentration, but only the conributions from various sources.

The model layer is defined in the MM5's half-sigma coordinate and driven by MM5 60km simulation. The model height can be approximately treated as the altitude above surface level where the topograph does not exceed 1km above sea level.

The model tracers include large-point-source NOx (LPS NOx) with NOx emission higher than 70 short_ton/day, LPS SO2 (SO2 emission > 200 short_ton/day), and source-tagged CO tracers: Asia, California, Washington-Oregon (WA-OR), Mexico, Canada, New_York-Massachusetts-Maryland-New_Jersey-Delaware-Rhode_Island (NYMAMD etc), Texas-New_Mexico-Louisiana (Texas etc), Ohio-West_Virginia-Pennsylvania (OHIO etc), New_Hampshire-Vermont-Maine (NHVTME etc), Illinois-Wisconsin-Indiana-Michigen (Midwest), Florida-Georgia-Alabama (Southeast), and Carolinas-Tennessee-Virginia (East). Biogenic equivalence CO is converted from isoprene and terpenes based on their carbon moles assuming that their oxidization contributes to CO production.

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